Geology (GEO)

Courses

GEO 1010. Introduction to Geology (PS). 3 Hours.

Fulfills Physical Science General Education requirement. Focuses on the physical dynamics of the natural environment, delineating its geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere components, and their global patterns of interaction. Highlights the processes of science that underpin this systemic view of the world. Emphasizes issues of resource availability, along with their political and social ramifications. Particular emphasis is placed on the challenges natural hazards present to civilization, worldwide. The extraordinary geology of the region surrounding DSU is featured in many textbook and lecture examples. One field trip required. GEO 1015 OR GEO 2000R lab course recommended. Inclusive Access Course Material fees may apply, see Fees tab under each course section for details. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Explain how the scientific method works and outlining how it is employed. 2. Explain the formation of the Earth and Solar System. 3. Explain and model the fundamentals of how plate tectonics works, including the formation of geologic structures and the mechanics of earthquakes. 4. Explain what minerals are and how they are classified. 5. Identify the three types of rocks (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic), explaining how they form, and detailing their classifications. 6. Explaining how surface processes work, generate and transport sediment, and shape the Earth's surface. 7. Explain how stratigraphic and radiometric dating work and are used in determining the age of a rock. 8. Explain how and why Earth's climate varies over time and how humans affect the climate. 9. Identify various geological natural resources and explaining how they form and are obtained. Course fee required. FA, SP, SU.

GEO 1010S. Introduction to Geology (PS, GC). 3 Hours.

Fulfills Physical Science General Education requirement. Focuses on the physical dynamics of the natural environment, delineating its geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere components, and their global patterns of interaction. Highlights the processes of science that underpin this systemic view of the world. Emphasizes issues of resource availability, along with their political and social ramifications. Particular emphasis is placed on the challenges natural hazards present to civilization, worldwide. The extraordinary geology of the region surrounding DSU is featured in many textbook and lecture examples. One field trip required. GEO 1015 OR GEO 2000R lab course recommended. This course was selected to participate in Dixie State University's Supplemental Instruction (SI) Program. This course adds one weekly class SI session but does not increase credit hours. SI is a series of weekly review sessions, led by peer SI leaders and designed to help students succeed in their academic pursuits. SI is provided for students who want to improve their understanding of course material and improve their grades. Inclusive Access Course Material fees may apply, see Fees tab under each course section for details. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Explain how the scientific method works and outlining how it is employed. 2. Explain the formation of the Earth and Solar System. 3. Explain and model the fundamentals of how plate tectonics works, including the formation of geologic structures and the mechanics of earthquakes. 4. Explain what minerals are and how they are classified. 5. Identify the three types of rocks (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic), explaining how they form, and detailing their classifications. 6. Explaining how surface processes work, generate and transport sediment, and shape the Earth's surface. 7. Explain how stratigraphic and radiometric dating work and are used in determining the age of a rock. 8. Explain how and why Earth's climate varies over time and how humans affect the climate. 9. Identify various geological natural resources and explaining how they form and are obtained. FA, SP.

GEO 1015. Introduction to Geology Lab (LAB). 1 Hour.

A laboratory course to be taken concurrently with Geology 1010. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Explain and employ the scientific method. 2. Identify and classify minerals and for what they are used. 3. Identify the three types of rocks (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic), explaining how they form, and detailing their classifications. 4. Explain how stratigraphic and radiometric dating work and are used in determining the age of a rock. 5. Explain and modeling the fundamentals of how plate tectonics works, including the formation of geologic structures and the mechanics of earthquakes. 6. Identify pertinent features generated by surface processes from photographs and diagrams. Course fee required. Corequisite: GEO 1010. FA, SP.

GEO 1020. Life of the Past (PS). 3 Hours.

Fulfills General Education Physical Science requirement for non-Science majors. General survey of historical Geology focusing on the relationship between the tectonic history of the Earth, the evolution of life through time, and the histories of the Earth and life and the complex interactions between them. GEO 1025 lab course recommended but not required. One field trip required. Offered upon sufficient student need. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Understand what science is, how science works, and how science progresses. 2. Understand the basis of physical sciences (especially geology) and evolution, and communicate scientific ideas via written and/or oral assignments. 3. Demonstrate knowledge of and appreciation for the internal and external processes on Earth today. 4. Identify and describe Earth materials and landforms. 5. Apply basic geologic principles to understand the orders, rates, and superimposition of dynamic geologic processes. 6. Integrate and apply information learned in lecture and exercises in the field. Course fee required.

GEO 1025. Life of the Past Laboratory (LAB). 1 Hour.

A laboratory course to be taken concurrently with GEO 1020. Lab fee required. 2 lab hours per week. Offered upon sufficient student need. Corequisite: GEO 1020.

GEO 1040. Introduction to Dinosaurs (PS). 3 Hours.

Fulfills General Education Physical Science requirement. Utilizes the popular subject matter of dinosaurs to teach basic principles of geology, biology, physics, chemistry, and astronomy, with some basic math (algebra). Successful completion of this interdisciplinary course contributes to an understanding of science and scientific concepts as well as their applications in a multitude of disciplines. GEO 1045 lab course recommended but not required. One field trip required. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Explain and employ the scientific method. 2. Explain and model the fundamentals of how plate tectonics works, including the formation of geologic structures. 3. Identify the three types of rocks (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic), explaining how they form, and detailing their classifications. 4. Identify the types of fossils and detailing how they form, how they occur in sedimentary rocks, and how sedimentary rocks tell about ancient environments. 5. Explain how stratigraphic and radiometric dating work and are used in determining the age of a rock or fossil. 6. Identify various vertebrate skeletal anatomical structures. 7. Identify and explaining the principles of evolution and systematics as a classification system based on evolution. 8. Accurately reading cladograms and explaining how they are generated. 9. Identify the kinds of dinosaurs (in a systematic and anatomical framework). 10. Explain how we understand dinosaurs as living animals - their restoration, behavior, diet, reproduction, physiology, growth, and extinction. Course fee required. FA.

GEO 1045. Introduction to Dinosaurs Laboratory (LAB). 1 Hour.

A laboratory course to be taken concurrently with GEO 1040. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Explain and employ the scientific method. 2. Identify and classify sedimentary rocks, and explaining how their sediments are generated and how they affect fossilization. 3. Explain and model the fundamentals of how plate tectonics works, including the formation of geologic structures. 4. Identify the types of fossils. 5. Explain how sedimentary processes work and can be recognized, and the basics of taphonomy. 6. Explain how stratigraphic and radiometric dating work and are used in determining the age of a rock. 7. Identify various vertebrate anatomical structures and hypothesizing their functional morphologies. 8. Explain evolution by natural selection. 9. Employ the fundamentals of phylogenetic practices. 10. Identify basic characteristics of ornithischian and saurischian dinosaurs and hypothesize their functions. Course fee required. Corequisite: GEO 1040. FA.

GEO 1050. Geology of the National Parks (PS). 3 Hours.

Fulfills General Education Physical Science requirement. General survey of Physical Geology emphasizing the geology of Utah's scenic national parks and monuments, as well as state parks, to investigate the geologic history of and processes shaping the region, inherent geologic hazards, and natural resource use and availability. Inclusive Access Course Material fees may apply, see Fees tab under each course section for details. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate knowledge of the skills required to make informed personal and social decisions about the issues that we will face locally as well as globally. 2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic fundamental laws, concepts, and theories in the physical sciences and be able to apply them to everyday life. 3. Be able to explain and apply the scientific method. 4. Demonstrate knowledge of the process of science by being able to utilize data in the form of tables, graphs, and charts through interpretation and then communicate those finding in oral and or written form. 5. Develop a basic understanding of the internal and external processes acting on the earth. 6. Identify and describe the origin and development of landforms found in the various National Parks of the southwest. 7. Identify and describe the earth materials. 8. Apply the principles of geologic time to analyze the rates of geologic processes related to the National Parks of the southwest. 9. Integrate information learned in class and laboratory studies to evaluate geologic processes in the field. Corequisite: GEO 1055. SP.

GEO 1055. Geology National Parks Lab (LAB). 1 Hour.

Field trip portion of GEO 1050. A seven day field trip featuring national parks and monuments, usually over Spring Break, to experience geologic processes shaping the landscape, interpret past environments/climates that created the resources utilized by society, and observe first-hand how our Earth has changed through geologic time and, in fact, is ever-changing. Requires hiking on park trails over uneven surfaces for average of three miles a day. Elevations up to 8300 feet. Course fee required. Corequisite: GEO 1050. SP.

GEO 1060. Introduction to Environmental Geology (PS). 3 Hours.

Fulfills General Education Physical Science requirement for non-Science majors. Emphasizes relationship between human beings and the geologic environment, including geologic hazards, mineral and energy resources, and environmental issues, including causes and impacts of environmental threats. Offered upon sufficient student need.

GEO 1080. Introduction to Oceanography. 3 Hours.

Fulfills General Education Physical Science requirement. Conveys the essential principles of ocean science, including an understanding of the earth's oceans focusing on sea floor topography and composition, plate tectonics, seawater dynamics and chemistry, atmospheric and ocean currents, waves, coastal land forms, and marine life as well as recognition of the close linkage of weather, climate, and humans to the oceans. GEO 1085 lab course recommended but not required. Offered upon sufficient student need. Inclusive Access Course Material fees may apply, see Fees tab under each course section for details. COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful completion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Differentiate science from non-science by recognizing hypotheses, theories, and/or laws that meet the criteria of science and use the scientific process/method. 2. Describe geologic and geographic features of Oceanic features and their formation as part of plate tectonics, including a full description of the Theory of Plate Tectonics, the history of its development, its mechanisms and processes that shape Earth both internally and externally. 3. Explain the formation and potential geologic hazards of the geographic landforms in each section of the major Oceanic provinces. 4. Identify the Ocean's biological, physical, and chemical constituents including economically important natural resources, describe their importance and renewability, where they are located and how they might be recovered, managed, and protected. 5. Articulate an understanding of both relative (stratigraphic) and absolute (radiometric) geologic time using these concepts to interpret physical and biological events in Earth history, and how these events relate to biological evolution including natural and anthropogenic activities.

GEO 1085. Intro to Oceanography Lab (LAB). 1 Hour.

A laboratory course in oceanography. Lab fee required for travel to marine laboratories and coastal regions in California. Offered upon sufficient student need. COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful completion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Develop an integrated understanding of oceanographic processes and the following CLOs through an intensive 4-day field experience. 2. Differentiate science from non-science by recognizing hypotheses, theories, and/or laws that meet the criteria of science and use the scientific process/method. 3. Describe the theory of plate tectonics, including the history of its development, its mechanisms and processes that shape Earth both internally and externally, including distinguishing geologic and geographic features of Oceanic features and their formation as part of plate tectonics. 4. Explain the formation and potential geologic hazards of the geographic landforms in each section of the major Oceanic provinces. 5. Identify the Ocean's biological, physical, and chemical constituents including economically important natural resources, describe their importance and renewability, where they are located and how they might be recovered, managed, and protected. 6. Articulate an understanding of both relative (stratigraphic) and absolute (radiometric) geologic time using these concepts to interpret physical and biological events in Earth history, and how these events relate to biological evolution as well as natural and anthropogenic activities. Course fee required.

GEO 1110. Physical Geology (PS). 3 Hours.

Fulfills a General Education Physical Science requirement for students majoring in the Sciences or Engineering, including Civil Engineering, Geology, Range Management, Forestry, etc. Covers the study of the physical features of the earth and the processes that shape those features. Successful completion gives students the background necessary for further study in the sciences. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate knowledge of the skills required to make informed personal and social decisions about the issues that we will face locally as well as globally. 2. Demonstrate knowledge of basic fundamental laws, concepts, and theories in the physical sciences and be able to apply them to everyday life. 3. Be able to explain and apply the scientific method. 4. Demonstrate knowledge of the process of science by being able to utilize data in the form of tables, graphs, and charts through interpretation and then communicate those finding in oral and or written form. 5. Distinguish between the major internal and external processes acting upon the earth. 6. Identify and describe various landforms created by those processes. 7. Identify and describe the earth materials. 8. Apply the principles of geologic time to analyze the rates of geologic processes. Corequisite: GEO 1115. FA.

GEO 1115. Physical Geology Lab (LAB). 1 Hour.

Lab portion of GEO 1110. Three Saturday field trips required. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Integrate information learned in class studies to evaluate geologic processes in the field. 2. Identify some of the major rock forming minerals as well as the rocks in the three major groups. 3. Identify the various processes from topographic maps. 4. Draw geologic cross sections from topographic maps. 5. Realize that the earth is a dynamic planet and is undergoing constant change due to the many internal and external geologic processes. Course fee required. Corequisite: GEO 1110. FA.

GEO 1220. Historical Geology. 3 Hours.

Conceptual examinations of how the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithospheres interact to create major structural and stratigraphic features (emphasizing North America) and how life has evolved through deep time. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Outline the history of how modern geology was developed. 2. Explain how stratigraphic and radiometric dating work and are used in determining the age of a rock. 3. Explain the natures of sedimentary rocks and their depositional environments and how they can be interpreted and inferred from the stratigraphic record. 4. Explain what fossils are and how they are useful in interpreting the stratigraphic record. 5. Explain how evolution works and has produced the lineages recorded in the fossil record. 6. Explain and modeling the fundamentals of how plate tectonics works. 7. Outline the major geological events during Earth history. 8. Outline the major evolutionary events during Earth history. Prerequisite: GEO 1110. Corequisite: GEO 1225. SP.

GEO 1225. Historical Geology Lab. 1 Hour.

Lab accompanying GEO 1220. Local field trip required. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Outline the history of how modern geology was developed. 2. Explain how stratigraphic and radiometric dating work and are used in determining the age of a rock. 3. Explain the natures of sedimentary rocks and their depositional environments and how they can be interpreted and inferred from the stratigraphic record. 4. Explain what fossils are and how they are useful in interpreting the stratigraphic record. 5. Explain how evolution works and has produced the lineages recorded in the fossil record. 6. Explain and modeling the fundamentals of how plate tectonics works. 7. Outline the major geological events during Earth history. 8. Outline the major evolutionary events during Earth history. Course fee required. Prerequisite: GEO 1115. Corequisite: GEO 1220. SP.

GEO 2000R. Applied Geologic Investigation of Grand Canyon, Zion, and Bryce National Parks (LAB). 1 Hour.

Fulfills General Education Laboratory Sciences requirement. Provides an opportunity for students to study topics such as depositional environments, plate tectonics , gradation, rock dating, geologic time, Earth history, and environmental issues in a field research setting through travel to Grand Canyon, Zion, and Bryce Canyon National Parks. The class will be held over a 4-5 day period. Overnight stays at the Tanner Field Station required. Repeatable up to 2 credits. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Examine evidence of climate change both in ancient and modern times. 2. Learn basic scientific processes used to develop hypotheses and theories. 3. Gain greater insight into the enormous length of geologic time and evidences that support this claim. 4. Learn the different ways that scientists can determine geologic ages. 5. Understand agents of gradation, particularly how the hydrologic cycle helps to shape the Earth. 6. Learn how the different subsystems of the Earth system interact as open systems as they exchange not just energy, but matter. 7. Know where and when the basic rock and mineral types form and how they are related to tectonic and hydrologic cycles. 8. Be able to identify common rocks and minerals. 9. Demonstrate the relationship between geological processes and resources and human activities. 10. Understand how plate tectonics works, including the role of the different types of plate boundaries and the forces that help drive the system. 11. Learn how tectonism has helped shape the Earth's surface. Course fee required. FA, SU.

GEO 2050. Earth Materials. 4 Hours.

Required for all geoscience degree programs. An introduction to the origin, classification, identification, and physical and chemical properties of minerals and rocks, including topics related to crystallography, mineral chemistry, petrology, and the importance of mineral and rock resources to society. Three lectures and one 3 hour laboratory per week. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Evaluate, identify, and classify minerals in hand samples and thin sections based on their physical properties. 2. Classify and categorize minerals based on chemistry and atomic structure. 3. Analyze variations in mineral chemistry and explain the chemical rules that dictate mineral structures. 4. Employ graphical methods to quantify and interpret mineral chemistry. 5. Describe how mineral chemistry and structure control physical and optical properties. 6. Evaluate various igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks and interpreting their environments of formation using their component mineral assemblages and textures. 7. Summarize how, where, and why minerals are important to manufacturing, economics, and politics. Course fee required. Prerequisites: GEO 1110 and GEO 1115 (Both Grade C+ or higher). FA.

GEO 2700R. Field Methods in Geoscience Research. 1 Hour.

A preparatory course for undergraduate participation in collaborative research projects in the geosciences. Repeatable for a max of 3 credits. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Acquire skills in collecting and organizing scientific data from field investigations. 2. Gain familiarity with the geoscientific context of the particular data set under consideration and will discover how the concepts and skills they are acquiring in their other coursework can be developed through interdisciplinary research. 3. Participate in a research project facilitated by the Colorado Plateau Field Institute (CPFI). Course fee required. Corequisite: GEO 1115.

GEO 2990. Seminar in Geology. 0.5-3 Hours.

For students wishing instruction that is not available through other regularly scheduled courses in this discipline. Occasionally, either students request some type of non-traditional instruction, or an unanticipated opportunity for instruction presents itself. This seminar course provides a variable credit context for these purposes. As requirements, this seminar course must first be pre-approved by the department chair; second, it must provide at least nine contact hours of lab or lecture for each credit hour offered; and third, it must include some academic project or paper (i.e., credit is not given for attendance alone). This course may include standard lectures, travel and field trips, guest speakers, laboratory exercises, or other non-traditional instruction methods. Note that this course is an elective and does not fulfill general education or program requirements.

GEO 3060. Environmental Geology. 3 Hours.

Geological attributes of environmental settings with emphasis on the analysis of geologic conditions pertinent to resource availability, urban planning, recognition and assessment of geologic hazards, and environmental issues through geochemical investigation of Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Prerequisites: GEO 1110 (Grade C or higher) AND GEO 1115 (Grade C or higher). Offered upon sufficient student need.

GEO 3180. Paleontology. 4 Hours.

Reviews theories, principles, and applications of paleontology, as well as the characteristics of important groups of fossil organisms and their geologic distributions and paleoecologies. Course includes lab. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Explain the nature of the fossil record. 2. Explain and employ the principles of evolution, speciation, systematics, and extinction. 3. Explain and employ the principles of functional morphology and paleoecology. 4. Explain and employ the principles of paleobiogeography and biostratigraphy. 5. Identify the fundamental characteristics and evolutionary histories of various groups of organisms, including plants, "protists," poriferans, cnidarians, "lophophorates" (brachiopods and bryozoans), arthropods, molluscs, echinoderms, and chordates via their body and trace fossils. Course fee required. Prerequisites: GEO 1220 and GEO 1225, or instructor permission. FA (even).

GEO 3400. Water Resources. 3 Hours.

A detailed examination of the water cycle, including: precipitation, surface water, ground water, glaciers, water conservation, water management, and water pollution with special emphasis on the water resources of Utah and neighboring areas. Prerequisites: GEO 1110/1115 AND CHEM 1210/1215. Offered upon sufficient student need.

GEO 3550. Sedimentology & Stratigraphy. 4 Hours.

Explores the origins, classification, and occurrences of sedimentary rocks and their distributions in space and time. Course emphasizes the description and interpretation of sedimentary rocks and the philosophy and application of stratigraphic principles. Offered upon sufficient student need. Course fee required. Prerequisites: GEO 1220 AND GEO 1225.

GEO 3700. Structural Geology. 4 Hours.

Examination of the geometries, mechanisms, and mechanics of rock deformation, including stress and strain relationships, fault and fold classification and description and relation to major tectonic features of Earth with application to geological engineering, petroleum geology, mining, water recovery and waste disposal. Labs present techniques to interpret and evaluate deformed rock in map, cross section, and three-dimensional views. Three lecture hours and one 3-hour lab per week. Field trips required. Offered upon sufficient student need. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Identify in the field and interpret both brittle structural deformation (extensional and shear fractures, fault-related folds) and ductile structural deformation (flow folds, foliation and rock fabrics). 2. Conduct a geometric structural analysis by acquiring reliable measurements of the geometry of structures with a compass; presenting and manipulating data using stereo-graphic projection; interpreting stress and kinematic histories from structural measurements; and inferring geometry of subsurface and missing parts of structures, in order to construct a viable geologic cross-section. 3. Identify and interpret sense-of-shear indicators associated with both brittle and ductile structures in the field, then reconstruct the deformation path of a structural feature or deformed region as part of a kinematic structural analysis. 4. Generate a dynamic structural analysis by deriving the normal and shear stress components for rock failure from the lab, then using these results to formulate constitutive equations for deformation, and quantify the contribution of each deformational mechanism in a region. 5. Preform a fault study to forecast earthquake potential by measuring the orientation, slip rate, and direction of the fault and combining these measurements with GPS and EDM results on strain accumulation rates. 6. Assess and justify the best location to drill for water, oil, or gas, predict the location of mineral resources, and/or judge the environmental impact of toxic waste disposal from a set of structural data. Prerequisites: GEO 1110 and 1115 and MATH 1050 (All grade C or higher).

GEO 3910. Applied Geologic Investigation of Iceland. 3 Hours.

Iceland, the land of fire and ice, offers students an experiential learning opportunity to study nearly every basic topic in Geology. Both tectonic processes powered by Earth's internal energy such as plate boundaries, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geysers, and gradation processes powered by the sun such as glaciers, rivers, shorelines, weathering and erosion are observed first hand. Environmental issues like resource use and its relationship to climate change and utilizing geothermal as a green energy resource to generate electricity are also examined. Course participants will meet for an hour a week during the semester then travel to Iceland for a six day travel abroad experience. Pre-trip classes include the above topics to prepare students to understand their experiences in Iceland. The fee covers airfare, lodging, transportation, activities, trip insurance and most meals. **COURSE LEARNING OUTCOMES (CLOs) At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Find evidence that meets the criteria of science in recognizing and differentiating hypotheses, theories and/or laws using the Plate Tectonic setting and glacier resources of Iceland. 2. Apply the concepts of both stratigraphic and radiometric dating to interpret physical and biologic events in Earth history using geologic processes, biologic evolution and/or anthropogenic landscape and climate change as evidenced in Iceland. 3. Identify Iceland's geologic and geographic landforms and explain both their formation (origin) and potential geologic hazards. 4. Identify Iceland's economically important Earth materials and natural resources and describe their importance, their renewability, how they are recovered and their impacts on global climate change, politics, and economics. 5. Describe the theory of plate tectonics including the history of its development, details of its mechanisms and processes, and the central role tectonics plays in shaping our planet both internally and externally, including tectonic hazards, as evidenced in Iceland. Course fee required. SP.